Tours de Hanoï

Le problème des tours de Hanoï est un divertissement mathématique conçu en 1883 par le mathématicien Édouard Lucas. De nos jours, c'est une excellente introduction à la récursion en mathématiques et à la récursivité en programmation.

Règles

Les règles sont les suivantes :

  • On dispose de trois piquets et de plusieurs disques de tailles différentes.
  • Initialement, tous les disques sont enfilés sur le premier piquet, du plus petit au plus grand, avec le plus petit au sommet.
  • Le but du jeu est de déplacer la pile de disques du premier au troisième piquet, sans jamais qu'un disque plus petit ne soit placé sous un disque plus gros que lui.
  • Un mouvement consiste à prendre un disque au sommet de l'un des trois piquets et à le déposer sur un autre piquet, si cela est possible.

Un joueur humain raisonnable peut espérer résoudre le problème pour un nombre de disques entre deux et cinq (31 coups) voire six (63 coups). En réalité, le nombre de coups croît de façon exponentielle, comme nous le verrons plus loin.

Résolution

Nous allons décomposer le problème récursivement. L'idée est que, pour transférer tous les n\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n disques sur le troisième piquet, il suffit de transférer les n1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n - 1 premiers sur le piquet intermédiaire, puis de déplacer le plus gros disque du premier au dernier piquet avant de déplacer les n1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n - 1 disques du piquet intermédiaire sur le dernier piquet. Ainsi, résoudre le problème avec n\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n disques revient à résoudre le problème pour n1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n - 1 disques, puis à effectuer quelques opérations bien prcises. Comme il est facile de trouver la solution pour 1 disque, on peut raisonner récursivement.

Pseudo-code

Supposons que l'on dispose d'une fonction deplacer(piquet A, piquet B) qui déplace le disque au sommet du piquet A sur le piquet B, ou retourne une erreur lorsque cela est impossible. On peut alors traduire le raisonnement précédent sous forme de pseudo-code :

Fonction hanoi(source, inter, dest, nombre_disques)
    Si nombre_disques = 1 :
        deplacer(source, dest)
    Sinon :
        hanoi(source, dest, inter, nombre_disques - 1)
        deplacer(source, dest)
        hanoi(inter, source, dest, nombre_disques - 1)

Ici, source désigne le piquet de départ du raisonnement, inter le piquet intermédiaire qu'on utilise pour stocker les n1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n - 1 disques, et dest est le piquet de destination sur lequel on souhaite déplacer tous les disques.

Implémentation en OCaml

On peut écrire la fonction deplacer de manière à afficher la liste des mouvements pour résoudre le problème. C'est ce qu'on fait dans l'exemple OCaml qui suit :

let deplacer source dest =
    print_string (source ^ " => " ^ dest);
    print_newline();;

let rec hanoi source inter dest n =
    let m1 = if n = 1 then 0 else hanoi source dest inter (pred n) in
    deplacer source dest;
    let m2 = if n = 1 then 0 else hanoi inter source dest (pred n) in
    (m1 + m2 + 1);;

On remarquera que la fonction hanoi retourne, au passage, le nombre de mouvements effectués. Essayons-là avec quatre piquets en utilisant des noms de camps fortifiés romains :

hanoi "Babaorum" "Laudanum" "Petibonum" 4;;

Cet appel de fonction imprime :

Babaorum => Laudanum
Babaorum => Petibonum
Laudanum => Petibonum
Babaorum => Laudanum
Petibonum => Babaorum
Petibonum => Laudanum
Babaorum => Laudanum
Babaorum => Petibonum
Laudanum => Petibonum
Laudanum => Babaorum
Petibonum => Babaorum
Laudanum => Petibonum
Babaorum => Laudanum
Babaorum => Petibonum
Laudanum => Petibonum

Cette solution comporte 15=241\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} 15 = 2^4 - 1 coups. Nous allons maintenant voir pourquoi.

Nombre de coups nécessaires

Notons Cn\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} C_n le nombre de coups nécessaires pour résoudre le problème à n\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n disques. On a directement :

C1=1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} C_1 = 1

Mais nous avons vu que, pour résoudre le problème avec n+1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n + 1 disques, il fallait déplacer les n\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n premiers disques sur le piquet intermédiaire, puis déplacer le plus gros disque sur le piquet final avec de déplacer les n\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n autres disques du piquet intermédiaire au piquet final. Traduit mathématiquement, ce processus donne :

Cn+1=2×Cn+1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} C_{n + 1} = 2 \times C_n + 1

Il s'agit d'une suite arithmético-géométrique que l'on sait résoudre de manière générique : sa solution est la somme de la solution homogène λ2n\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} \lambda 2^n et d'une solution particulière, ici la constante -1. Le premier terme de la série C1=1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} C_1 = 1 nous donne λ=1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} \lambda = 1, de sorte que :

Cn=2n1\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} C_n = 2^n - 1

Donc, quand n\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} n devient grand, on a :

Cn2n\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} C_n \sim 2^n

Et donc un nombre de coups exponentiel. Par exemple, C101.000\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} C_{10} \approx 1.000 et C201.000.000\def\LdG{\dot{L}_G} \def\Ld{\dot{L}} \def\bfA{\boldsymbol{A}} \def\bfB{\boldsymbol{B}} \def\bfC{\boldsymbol{C}} \def\bfD{\boldsymbol{D}} \def\bfE{\boldsymbol{E}} \def\bfF{\boldsymbol{F}} \def\bfG{\boldsymbol{G}} \def\bfH{\boldsymbol{H}} \def\bfI{\boldsymbol{I}} \def\bfJ{\boldsymbol{J}} \def\bfK{\boldsymbol{K}} \def\bfL{\boldsymbol{L}} \def\bfM{\boldsymbol{M}} \def\bfN{\boldsymbol{N}} \def\bfO{\boldsymbol{O}} \def\bfP{\boldsymbol{P}} \def\bfQ{\boldsymbol{Q}} \def\bfR{\boldsymbol{R}} \def\bfS{\boldsymbol{S}} \def\bfT{\boldsymbol{T}} \def\bfU{\boldsymbol{U}} \def\bfV{\boldsymbol{V}} \def\bfW{\boldsymbol{W}} \def\bfX{\boldsymbol{X}} \def\bfY{\boldsymbol{Y}} \def\bfZ{\boldsymbol{Z}} \def\bfalpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}} \def\bfa{\boldsymbol{a}} \def\bfbeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}} \def\bfb{\boldsymbol{b}} \def\bfcd{\dot{\bfc}} \def\bfchi{\boldsymbol{\chi}} \def\bfc{\boldsymbol{c}} \def\bfd{\boldsymbol{d}} \def\bfe{\boldsymbol{e}} \def\bff{\boldsymbol{f}} \def\bfgamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \def\bfg{\boldsymbol{g}} \def\bfh{\boldsymbol{h}} \def\bfi{\boldsymbol{i}} \def\bfj{\boldsymbol{j}} \def\bfk{\boldsymbol{k}} \def\bflambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}} \def\bfl{\boldsymbol{l}} \def\bfm{\boldsymbol{m}} \def\bfn{\boldsymbol{n}} \def\bfomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}} \def\bfone{\boldsymbol{1}} \def\bfo{\boldsymbol{o}} \def\bfpdd{\ddot{\bfp}} \def\bfpd{\dot{\bfp}} \def\bfphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}} \def\bfp{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\bfq{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\bfr{\boldsymbol{r}} \def\bfsigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}} \def\bfs{\boldsymbol{s}} \def\bftau{\boldsymbol{\tau}} \def\bft{\boldsymbol{t}} \def\bfu{\boldsymbol{u}} \def\bfv{\boldsymbol{v}} \def\bfw{\boldsymbol{w}} \def\bfxi{\boldsymbol{\xi}} \def\bfx{\boldsymbol{x}} \def\bfy{\boldsymbol{y}} \def\bfzero{\boldsymbol{0}} \def\bfz{\boldsymbol{z}} \def\calA{\mathcal{A}} \def\calB{\mathcal{B}} \def\calC{\mathcal{C}} \def\calD{\mathcal{D}} \def\calE{\mathcal{E}} \def\calF{\mathcal{F}} \def\calG{\mathcal{G}} \def\calH{\mathcal{H}} \def\calI{\mathcal{I}} \def\calJ{\mathcal{J}} \def\calK{\mathcal{K}} \def\calL{\mathcal{L}} \def\calM{\mathcal{M}} \def\calN{\mathcal{N}} \def\calO{\mathcal{O}} \def\calP{\mathcal{P}} \def\calQ{\mathcal{Q}} \def\calR{\mathcal{R}} \def\calS{\mathcal{S}} \def\calT{\mathcal{T}} \def\calU{\mathcal{U}} \def\calV{\mathcal{V}} \def\calW{\mathcal{W}} \def\calX{\mathcal{X}} \def\calY{\mathcal{Y}} \def\calZ{\mathcal{Z}} \def\d#1{{\rm d}{#1}} \def\defeq{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}} \def\dim{\rm dim} \def\p{\boldsymbol{p}} \def\qdd{\ddot{\bfq}} \def\qd{\dot{\bfq}} \def\q{\boldsymbol{q}} \def\xdd{\ddot{x}} \def\xd{\dot{x}} \def\ydd{\ddot{y}} \def\yd{\dot{y}} \def\zdd{\ddot{z}} \def\zd{\dot{z}} C_{20} \approx 1.000.000.

Pour aller plus loin

Le petit tour d'horizon de ce classique touche à sa fin. Il y aurait encore beaucoup à dire sur ce problème, mais nous nous cantonnerons ici à des notions et méthodes générales. Pour de plus amples informations, vous pouvez consulter les articles qui suivent :

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